Bliss, D.E. 1982. Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs. New Jersey: New Century Publishers, Inc. 242pp.

Cohen, A. and J. Carlton. 1997. Transoceanic transport mechanisms: introduction of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, to California. Pacific Science 51(1): 1-11.

_______. 1995. Biological study. Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: A case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C. and National Sea Grant College Program, Connecticut Sea Grant, NTIS report no. PB96-166525.
also available online at <>

Groscholtz, E. D. 1996. Contrasting rates of spread for introduced species in terrestrial and marine systems. Ecology 77(6): 1680-1686.

Gyoten, J. 1994. Changes of living habits related to the infection in human paragonimiasis in Japan, based on the epidemiological data. Jap. J. Parasitol. 43(6): 462-470.

Halat, K. M. and V. H. Resh. 1996. The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis): Implications for the freshwater habitats of the San Francisco Bay and Delta Ecosystem. Sixth International Zebra Mussel and Other Aquatic Nuisance Species Conference, Dearborn Michigan, March 1996.
also available online at <>

Hieb, K. 1998. Status and potential impacts of the Chinese mitten crab in the San Francisco Estuary. The Eighth International Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species Conference, March 16-19, 1998.

_______. 1997. Chinese Mitten Crabs in the Delta. IEP Newsletter. 10(1): 14-15.

Hollibaugh, J.T. ed. 1996. San Francisco Bay: The Ecosystem; further investigations into the natural history of San Francisco Bay and Delta with reference to the influence of man. Seventy-Fifth annual meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, California, June 19-24, 1994. 542pp.

Horwath, J.L. 1989. Importation or shipment of injurious wildlife: Chinese mitten crabs. U.S. Federal Register. 54(98): 22286-22289.

Huxley, T.X. 1880. The Crayfish: an introduction to the study of zoology. In the International Scientific Series (XXVIII). New York: D. Appleton and Company.
also available online at <>

Kaestner, A. 1970. Invertebrate zoology. III. Crustecea. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons Inc. 523pp. As cited in Nepszy, S.J. and J.H. Leach. 1973.

Morris, R.H., D.P. Abbott, and E.C. Haderlie. 1980. Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 690pp.

Moyle, P. B. and T. Light 1996. Fish invasions in California: do abiotic factors determine success. Ecology 77(6): 1666-1670.

Nepszy, S.Y. and J.H. Leach. 1973. First Records of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Erichocheir sinensis, (Crustacea: Brachyura) from North America, Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30:1909-1910.

Nichols, F.H. and M.M. Pamatmat. 1988. The Ecology of the Soft-Bottom Benthos of San Francisco Bay: A Community Profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 85(7.19). 73pp.

Nickles, J. 1997. Crusading crabs put Delta in a pinch. Contra Costa Record. November 16, 1997. Section D Page 1.

Panning, A. 1952. Die chinesische Wollhandkrabbe, die Neue Brehm-Bücherei. p 3.

_______. 1938. The Chinese Mitten Crab. Annual Report Smithsonian Institution. 361-375.

Peters, N. and A. Panning. 1933. Die Chinesische Wollandkrabbe (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards) in Deutschland. Zoologischer Anzeiger (supplement). 104: 1-180.

Puget Sound Exotic Species Task Force. unpublished working draft 1998. Washington State Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan.

Seattle Times. 1998. Invasions from the deep: exotic sea creatures are threatening regional species. January 27, 1998. Section A Page 8.

Slack, G. 1996. Habitats: Chinese crabs discover San Francisco Bay. In Pacific Discovery [Online]: <> [April 18, 1998].

Veldhuizen, T. C. and K. A. Hieb. 1998. Status and potential impacts of the Chinese mitten crab in San Francisco Estuary. Eighth International Zebra Mussel and Aquatic Nuisance Species Conference, Sacramento, California, March 1998.

Vitousek, P.M. 1990. Biological invasions and ecosystem processes: towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies. OIKOS 57: 7-13.

Vogel, N. 1994. Crab could put California agriculture in real pinch; Environment: The invading species is a threat to rice crops, levees and water supplies, experts say, The Orange County Register, November 30, 1994.

Williamson, M. and A. Fitter. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77(6): 1661-1666.